Aditya L1 Mission


Why in the news Aditya L1 Mission?

 Recently ISRO successfully launched India’s first space-based solar observatory mission to study the sun named Aditya L1 Mission.

Aditya L1 Mission

What is Aditya L1 mission?

Aditya-L1 a coronagraphy spacecraft built by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and several other Indian Space Research Institutes to investigate the solar atmosphere. It is in a halo orbit, roughly 1.5 million kilometers from Earth, near the Lagrange point 1 (L1), which is the location of the Sun and Earth. From there, it will investigate the solar atmosphere, solar magnetic storms, and how these phenomena affect the Earth’s surrounding environment.

Aditya L1 Mission

Objectives of Aditya L1 mission

To watch the chromosphere and corona dynamics of the Sun:

  • To investigate flare exchanges, the physics of partly ionized plasma, the coronal magnetic field and heat transmission mechanisms, coronal mass ejections (cmes) and their origins, and chromospheric and coronal heating.
  • To keep an eye on the surrounding physical particle environment.
  • To ascertain the order in which events in various layers underneath the corona culminate in solar outbursts.
  • To research solar wind dynamics, composition, and origins as well as space weather

Payloads of the Aditya l1 mission

Visible emission in coronography

One of the main instruments on the Aditya spacecraft is the Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC). An internally occult reflective coronagraph calls the VELC creates to meet particular observation requirements. The device enables simultaneous observations in three modes (imaging, spectroscopy, and spectro-polarimetry) and high spatial resolution imaging of 1.25–2.5 arc seconds of the Sun’s corona. It also uses artificial intelligence to help detect coronal mass ejections (CMEs).

Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SUIT)

The SUIT is an ultraviolet imaging telescope designed to study the solar spectral radiation in the ultraviolet range, using narrowband and broadband spectral filters in the range of 200-400 nm with the hope of developing a better understanding between solar activity and the atmospheric dynamics of Earth.

Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS)

The SoLEXS an X-ray spectrometer designs to continuously measure the solar soft X-ray flux (1 keV-22 keV) from the Sun-Earth Lagrangian point L1. These measurements can be use to better understand the properties of the Sun’s corona, in particular, why the temperature of the corona so high

High Energy L-1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS)

The instrument aims to study the acceleration and movement of electrons in the Sun’s corona, as well as to study the cut-off energy between thermal and non-thermal solar emissions

Aditya L1 Mission Solar Wind Particle Experiment (ASPEX)

The ASPEX is an instrument composed of low and high-energy spectrometers, designed to conduct measurements of the Sun’s solar wind particles.

Plasma Analyser Package for Aditya (PAPA)

The PAPA is an instrument onboard the Aditya-L1 designed to study the temperature, distribution, and velocity of the solar winds. The instrument contains two sensors; the Solar Wind Electron Energy Probe (SWEEP) and the Solar Wind Lon Composition Analyser (SWICAR).

What are Lagrangian points?

The Lagrange points also known as Lagrangian points or libration points, are places of equilibrium for small-mass objects that are subject to the gravitational pull of two giant orbiting masses in celestial mechanics. This entails solving the constrained three-body issue mathematically.

Aditya L1 Mission

Aditya L1 Mission point

The line that separates the two massive masses, M1 and M2, is where the L1 point is located. It is the location where M2 and M1’s combined gravitational pull create an equilibrium or a situation where opposing forces or influences are balanced. The object’s orbital period will lengthen if it is squarely between Earth and the Sun because of Earth’s gravity partially offsetting the Sun’s attraction. This effect increases with the object’s proximity to Earth. The object’s orbital period perfectly equals Earth’s orbital period at the L1 point.

L2 point

Beyond the smaller of the two massive masses, the L2 point is located on the line that passes through them. Here, the centrifugal force acting on a body at L2 is balanced by the combined gravitational forces of the two massive masses. An object’s orbital period would typically be longer than Earth’s if it were located on the opposite side of the planet from the Sun. The object’s orbital period is shortened by Earth’s gravitational pull, and it equalizes Earth’s orbital period at the L2 point.

L3 point

Beyond the greater of the two massive masses, the L3 point is located on the line that is defined by them. The L3 point is located in the Sun-Earth system on the other side of the Sun, a little beyond Earth’s orbit and a little bit further from the Sun’s center than Earth. This arrangement results from the Sun orbiting around the two bodies because it is impacted by Earth’s gravity as well.

L4 and L5 points

Gravitational accelerations at L4

The L4 and L5 points lie at the third vertices of the two equilateral triangles in the plane of orbit whose common base is the line between the centers of the two masses, such that the point lies 60° ahead of (L4) or behind (L5) the smaller mass about its orbit around the larger mass

Why is Aditya l1 Mission placed on Lagrangian points?

Usually, the two large things produce an uneven gravitational field at a certain location, which modifies the orbit of whatever is in that location. The centrifugal force and the gravitational forces of the two massive bodies balance each other out at the Lagrange points. Because fewer orbit corrections and hence less fuel are needed to maintain the desired orbit, Lagrange points can be a great place for satellites.

For any combination of two orbital bodies, there are five Lagrange points, L1 to L5, all in the orbital plane of the two large bodies. There are five Lagrange points for the Sun–Earth system, and five different Lagrange points for the Earth–Moon system. L1, L2, and L3 are on the line through the centers of the two large bodies, while L4 and L5 each act as the third vertex of an equilateral triangle formed with the centers of the two large bodies.

The L4 and L5 points are stable points, which means that objects can orbit them and have a tendency to draw things into them when the mass ratio of the two bodies is high enough. Near their L4 and L5 positions about the Sun, several planets have trojan asteroids; Jupiter has more than a million of these trojans.

Advantages of India’s Aditya-L1 mission:
Solar Research: The main goal of the Aditya-L1 mission is to investigate the Sun’s corona, or outermost layer, and gain an understanding of several solar phenomena, including solar winds, solar flares, and magnetic fields. This study has the potential to further our knowledge of the behavior of the Sun and enhance solar physics.


Advances in Space Technology:  The mission entails the creation and application of cutting-edge space technology and sensors. Technological developments in fields like satellite design, sensors, and communication systems may result from this.


International Collaboration:  Data sharing and cooperative analysis can help facilitate collaborations with other space organizations and scientific institutions throughout the world. This can support international efforts to comprehend space weather and solar events.


Forecasting space weather It requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of the Sun. Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are examples of solar activity that can affect Earth’s magnetosphere and cause problems for navigational systems, satellite communications, and electrical grids. Predictions of space weather can be improved using data from the Aditya-L1 mission.


Scientific Knowledge and Education:


The mission’s data and results have the potential to be useful for both scientific study and teaching. It may encourage researchers and students to work in space science and related subjects.


Technological Spin-offs: As a result of technology developed for space missions, many other industries find use for these spin-off innovations. The materials, sensors, and communication technology

innovations created with Aditya-L1 might find wider uses.



In conclusion, the Aditya-L1 mission is a major step forward for India’s space exploration efforts and has the potential to significantly advance world scientific knowledge as well as useful applications. It is expected that the mission’s successful completion will have a long-lasting effect on solar study, technological advancement, and international cooperation in the field of space exploration.

Sources: Indian ExpressWikipedia