EDEN IAS

Biotechnology

Biotechnology

Introduction of Biotechnology:

In the multidisciplinary discipline of biotechnology, the natural and engineering sciences integrates to enable the application of organisms, cells, and components thereof, as well as molecular analogues, for goods and services.

Biotechnology has had a big impact on a lot of societal fields, such environmental science, agriculture, and medicine. Genetic engineering is a fundamental approach in biotechnology that enables scientists to alter an organism’s genetic makeup in order to obtain certain results. This may entail introducing genes from one organism into another in order to produce new characteristics or alter already existing ones.

Bio – technology has many uses and has produced many useful goods, including bio fuels, genetically modified crops, medicines that can save lives, and novel materials. In order to address environmental issues, it has also been applying to the creation of biodegradable polymers and the utilization of microbes to clean up contaminate areas.

Biodegradable Modification

Bio – technology is a fast-growing field that has the potential to significantly improve people’s lives worldwide and address urgent global issues. But, in spite of all of its advantages, biotechnology also raises ethical and societal issues, such as concerns about genetic modification and intellectual property rights. The usage and application of biotechnology in numerous businesses and fields is therefore the subject of continuous discussion and regulation.

Four main industrial sectors can benefit from the use of biotechnology: the medical field; agriculture and crop production; non-food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (such as biodegradable polymers, vegetable oil, and bio fuels); and environmental applications.

One use of biotechnology, for instance, is the controlled exploitation of microbes to produce organic goods, such as milk and beer. Another illustration is the mining industry’s use of naturally occurring microorganisms in bioleaching. In addition, biotechnology employing in the production of biological weapons, recycling, waste treatment, and bioremediation—the process of cleaning up industrially contaminate places.

Key Terms Related to Biotechnology

                                    KEY TERMS RELEATED TO BIO-TECHNOLOGY

  • Blue biotechnology– Its foundation is the industrial application and product creation of marine resources. The refining and combustion industries employ this area of biotechnology the most, mostly for the manufacture of bio-oils using photosynthetic microalgae.
  • Green biotechnology– It is the application of biotechnology to farming methods. The selection and domestication of plants using micropropagation serves as one example.
  • Red biotechnology- It is the application of biotechnology to the pharmaceutical and medical fields, as well as to the maintenance of health. This field includes the development of artificial organs, the manufacture of vaccinations and antibiotics, regenerative medicine, and novel disease diagnostics.
  • White bio – technology- It is used in industrial processes and is sometimes referred to as industrial biotechnology. Designing an organism to generate a useful chemical is one example. Using enzymes as industrial catalysts to either create useful molecules or eliminate dangerous or polluting substances is another example.
  • Yellow biotechnology- It alludes to the application of biotechnology in the food sector for the production of food, such as in the fermentation-based processes used to make cheese, wine, and beer. Additionally, it has been use to describe biotechnology use on insects. This involves using biotechnology to control hazardous insects, characterizing and using insect genes or active components for study, using the technology to agriculture and medicine, and using it for a variety of other purposes.
  • Grey biotechnology- It is devoted to environmental applications and concentrates on pollutant removal and biodiversity preservation.

Tools of Biotechnology

The means of bio – technology are as follows:

I. Genetic Engineering

It is a branch of molecular biology that deals with changing or modifying how genetic components like DNA and RNA are formed. This method modifies the phenotypic of the host organism. Asexual reproduction preserves genetic information. Sexual reproduction, on the other hand, permits variation.

II. Cloning

It has the ability to replicate an organism, cell, or DNA fragment several times in exactly the same way. The process of reproducing asexually involves introducing foreign DNA into an organism. This DNA joins the chromosome and begins to replicate.

III. Recombinant DNA

  • It involves the recombining of DNA fragments from various sources to create DNA molecules that scientists create in the lab. The identical molecular structure of DNA molecules from diverse sources makes it feasible.

IV. Biotechnology in Agriculture

  • Bio – technology has introduced genetically modified organisms as a substitute for conventional farming methods.
  • Insecticides have been replaced by biopesticides that have been genetically modified, such as Bt toxin.
  • Genetically engineered plants and crops are resistant to infections and insects.
V. Biotechnology in Medicine
  • Genetically manipulated Insulin has been helpful to manage symptoms of onset diabetes in adults.
  • Gene therapy is a group of methods to correct gene defects and cure hereditary diseases.
  • Molecular diagnosis is being conducted for effective examination and treatment of diseases.
  • Experts are using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to detect HIV AIDS.

 VI. Biotechnology in Animal Treatment

  • One outcome of biotechnology is the creation of transgenic animals, which aid in the study and comprehension of animal physiology and development.
  • They are also useful for in-depth research on illnesses affecting animals.
  • Moreover, they recombine a particular DNA segment to create biological products. These biological products are necessary to cure a number of diseases in humans at a reasonable cost. In addition, scientists can test vaccinations and chemical safety reactions using them.

VII. Environment

  • There are numerous uses for environmental bio – technology, such as treating drinkable water and reducing pollution in aquifers, lakes, rivers, coastal areas, reservoirs, and lakes.
  • Biosensors, biochips, and testing for pathogenicity and toxicity are other components of environmental biotechnology.
  • One of the most significant uses of environmental bio – technology is bio remediation. It entails using microorganisms to break down contaminants found in water or soil.
  • Oil spills, tainted groundwater, and other hazardous waste sites can be cleaned up via bioremediation.
  • Phytoremediation is another use, where contaminants are removed from soil or water using plants.

GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES

  • The goal of the Make in India, Skill India, and Start-up India initiatives is to position India as a global center for biotechnology and bio manufacturing.
  • The biotechnology industry will undoubtedly benefit from the government’s ambitious plan to transform the nation into a $100 billion biomanufacturing hub by 2024.
  • Among the 14 champion industries under the “Make in India” initiative, biotech has been named the dawn sector and has the potential to help India reach its $5 trillion economic target.

Sources THE HINDU, PIB, Wikipedia