EDEN IAS

Daily MCQ UPSC Current Affairs

Daily MCQs for UPSC Current Affairs | 14TH NOVEMBER 2022

Question 11: Consider the following statements with respect to Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy:

  1. It is a way to get immune cells called T cells, a type of red blood cell, to fight cancer by changing them in the lab.
  2. CARs are proteins that assist the T-cells to recognize and attach to a specific protein present on cancer cells.
  3. All lymphocytes begin their development in the bone marrow.
  4. T cells originate in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 2 and 3 only
  2. 1,2 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 4 only
  4. 2,3 and 4 only

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a way to get immune cells called T cells (a type of white blood cell) to fight cancer by changing them in the lab so they can find and destroy cancer cells.
  • CAR T-cell therapy is also sometimes talked about as a type of cell-based gene therapy, because it involves altering the genes inside T cells to help them attack the cancer.
  • CAR-T therapy is indigenously developed by IIT Bombay and Tata Memorial Centre, It is funded under National Biopharma Mission (NBM) by Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC).
  • T cells are taken from patient’s blood and are changed in lab by adding a gene for a man-made receptor (called CAR).
  • CARs are proteins that assist the T-cells to recognise and attach to a specific protein present on cancer CAR-T cells are then given back to the patient.
  • B cell, also called B lymphocyte, one of the two types of lymphocytes (the other is the T cells). All lymphocytes begin their development in the bone marrow.
  • B cells are involved in so-called humoral immunity. On encountering a foreign substance  (antigen),   the   B   cell differentiates into   a plasma   cell,   which secretes antibodies. Antibodies produced by plasma cells are closely modeled after receptors on precursor B cells. Following their release into the blood and lymph, they bind to the target antigen and initiate its neutralization or destruction. Antibody production continues for several days or months, until the antigen has been Other B cells, the memory B cells, are stimulated to multiply but do not differentiate into plasma cells; they provide the immune system with long-lasting memory.
  • T cell, also called T lymphocyte, type of leukocyte (white blood cell) that is an essential part of the immune system. T cells are one of two primary types of lymphocytesB cells being the second type—that determine the specificity of immune response to antigens (foreign substances) in the body.
  • T cells originate in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus. In the thymus, T cells multiply and differentiate into helper, regulatory, or cytotoxic T cells or become memory T cells.
  • They are then sent to peripheral tissues or circulate in the blood or lymphatic system. Once stimulated by the appropriate antigen, helper T cells secrete chemical messengers called cytokines, which stimulate the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells (antibody-producing cells).
  • Regulatory T cells act to control immune reactions, hence their Cytotoxic T cells, which are activated by various cytokines, bind to and kill infected   cells and cancer cells.

Question 12: Consider the following statements with respect to District Development Coordination and Monitoring Committee (Disha):

  1. The Chairperson of the Disha should be a Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) elected from the district, nominated by the Ministry of Rural Development.
  2. Disha will cover all non-statutory schemes of Government of India that are administered in general.
  3. Meetings of the Disha should be held at least once in a year.
  4. The District Collector will be the Member Secretary responsible for the timely follow up on recommendations.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1,2 and 3
  2. 2,3 and 4
  3. 1,2 and 4
  4. 1,2,3 and 4

Correct Answer: C

Explanation

  • District Development Coordination and Monitoring Committee (Disha) is being formed with a view to fulfilling the objective of ensuring a better coordination among all the elected representatives in Parliament, State Legislatures and Local Governments (Panchayati Raj Institutions/Municipal Bodies) for efficient and time- bound development of districts in our country.
  • The Disha will supersede the District Vigilance & Monitoring Committee currently mandated by Ministry of Rural Development.
  • The Chairperson of the Disha should be a Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) elected from the district, nominated by the Ministry of Rural Development.
  • Disha will cover all non-statutory schemes of Government of India that are administered in general.
  • Meetings of the Disha should be held at least once in every Quarter, after giving sufficient notice to the Hon’ble MPs/MLAs and all other Members.
  • The District Collector will be the Member Secretary responsible for the timely follow up on recommendations.

Question 13: Consider the following statements:

  1. The Eleventh Schedule lists 29 items that are the responsibility of Local Governments in urban areas and Twelfth Schedule provides the list of 18 items that are under rural Local Government.
  2. Constitution provides authority to State Legislature to endow local governments with power for planning and implementation.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer: B

Explanation

  • The Eleventh Schedule lists 29 items that are the responsibility of Local Governments in rural areas and Twelfth Schedule provides the list of 18 items that are under urban Local Government.
  • Article 243 G provides authority to State Legislature to endow local governments with power for planning and implementation. Article 243 ZD provides the authority for Committee for District Planning (DPC).

Question 14: Consider the following statements with respect to Global methane pledge:

  1. It was launched at COP26 in 2021 to catalyze action to reduce methane emissions.
  2. It is led by United States and European Union.
  3. Members commit to collectively reduce methane emissions by at least 30% below 2020 levels by
  4. India did not sign the pledge.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1,2 and 3
  2. 2,3 and 4
  3. 1,2 and 4
  4. 1,2,3 and 4

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

Global methane pledge:

  • GMP was launched at COP26 in 2021 to catalyze action to reduce methane emissions.
  • It is led by United States and European Union.
  • It now has more than 100 country participants who together are responsible for 45% of global human-caused methane emissions.
  • Members commit to collectively reduce methane emissions by at least 30% below 2020 levels by 2030.
  • India did not sign the pledge because of its concerns over the impact on trade, on the country’s vast farm sector, and the role of livestock in the rural economy.