EDEN IAS

Daily MCQ UPSC Current Affairs

Daily MCQs for UPSC Current Affairs | 17TH NOVEMBER 2022

Question 23: Consider the following statements:

  1. Sloth bears are endemic to the Indian sub-continent and 90% of the species population is found in India.
  2. They are Classified as `Vulnerable’ on the IUCN Red List.
  3. In India, they have the same level of protection as tigers, rhinos and elephants.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1,2 and 3

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • The first World Sloth Bear Day was observed on October 12, 2022, to generate awareness and strengthen conservation efforts around the unique bear species endemic to the Indian subcontinent.
  • Classified as `Vulnerable’ on the IUCN Red List, sloth bears are endemic to the Indian sub-continent and 90% of the species population is found in India.
  • Sloth bears are identified by their very distinct long, shaggy dark brown or black fur, distinct white V-shaped chest patch and four-inch-long ivory-colored curved claws used for digging out termites and ants from rock-hard mounds.
  • Listed under Schedule I of the (Wildlife Protection) Act of India, 1972 the species has the same level of protection as tigers, rhinos and elephants.

Question 24: Consider the following statements:

  1. The Global Peatlands Initiative is an effort by leading experts and institutions formed by 13 founding members at the UNFCCC COP25.
  2. The current greenhouse gas emissions from drained or burned peatlands are estimated to amount up to five percent of the global carbon budget.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer: B

Explanation

  • The Global Peatlands Initiative is an effort by leading experts and institutions formed by 13 founding members at the UNFCCC COP in Marrakech, Morocco in 2016 to save peatlands as the world’s largest terrestrial organic carbon stock and to prevent it being emitted into the atmosphere.
  • The current greenhouse gas emissions from drained or burned peatlands are estimated to amount up to five percent of the global carbon budget — in the range of two billion tonnes CO2 per year.
  • Partners to the Initiative are working together within their respective areas of expertise to improve the conservation, restoration and sustainable management of peatlands.
  • The Initiative has grown to 49 international organizations with four major tropical peatland countries of Indonesia, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Peru.
  • 30 by 30 (or 30×30) is a worldwide initiative for governments to designate 30% of Earth’s land and ocean area as protected areas by 2030. The target was proposed by a 2019 article in Science “A Global Deal for Nature”, highlighting the need for expanded nature conservation efforts to mitigate climate change.

Question 25: Consider the following statements:

  1. Oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an oral powder–containing mixture of glucose sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium citrate.
  2. ORS and zinc are recommended by the WHO to be used collectively to ensure the effective treatment of diarrhea.
  3. Zinc decreases the duration and severity of an episode and reduces the risk of recurrence in the immediate short term.
  4. Glucose facilitates the absorption of sodium.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1,2 and 3
  2. 2,3 and 4
  3. 1,2 and 4
  4. 1,2,3 and 4

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • Oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an oral powder–containing mixture of glucose sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium citrate.
  • After being dissolved in the requisite volume of water they are intended for the prevention and treatment of dehydration due to diarrhea, including maintenance therapy.
  • ORS and zinc are recommended by the WHO and UNICEF to be used collectively to ensure the effective treatment of diarrhea.
  • ORS replaces the essential fluids and salts lost through diarrhea.
  • Zinc decreases the duration and severity of an episode and reduces the risk of recurrence in the immediate short term.
  • ORS and zinc are highly effective and affordable products for treatment of childhood diarrhea that could prevent deaths in up to 93% of diarrhea cases.
  • ORS that is procured should contain only four ingredients, glucose, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and trisodium citrate, in the concentrations described in the “Product Specification” section below. The addition of other ingredients, such as other minerals (especially zinc) or vitamins, has not been shown to improve the solution’s efficacy. For this reason, neither UNICEF nor WHO approve or provide ORS with additives for use in the treatment of the childhood diarrhea.
  • Any additional ingredients should be clearly described on the packet. Manufacturers must demonstrate their clinical value, safety, and chemical stability.

  • Glucose facilitates the absorption of sodium (and hence water) on a 1:1 molar basis in the small intestine.
  • Sodium and potassium are needed to replace the losses of these essential ions during diarrhea (and vomiting).
  • Citrate corrects the acidosis that occurs as a result of diarrhea and dehydration.

Question 26: Consider the following statements:

  1. As per constitution of India, the official language used for communication between the States shall be the language that has been in use at the time of adoption of the Constitution.
  2. According to the Constitution the regions of India are eligible to use any of the official languages of India for official purposes.
  3. A regional language can be adopted as an official language of India.
  4. The official language committee is a statutory committee constituted under the Official Language Act, 1963.
  5. The official language committee is chaired by the union home minister.
  6. The official language committee is not mandated to recommend the medium of instruction in universities and professional institutions.

Which of the following statements is/are true?

  1. 1,2,3 and 4
  2. 2,3,5 and 6
  3. 1,3,4 and 5
  4. All of the above

Correct Answer: D

Explanation

  • The Constitution states that the official language used for communication between the States shall be the language that has been in use at the time of adoption of the Constitution.
  • According to the Constitution the regions of India are eligible to use any of the official languages of India for official purposes.
  • It also acknowledges the possibility of a regional language being adopted and becoming an official language of India, if the President deems that a large enough proportion of the population of India desires it.
  • The official language committee is a statutory committee constituted under Section 4 in the Official Language Act, 1963. Its duty is to review the progress made in the use of Hindi for the official purposes of the Union and submit a report to the President.
  • The Act makes it obligatory for the President to issue directions “in accordance with the whole or any part of the report” (Section 4(4)). It can thus be seen that the committee’s recommendations are required to be acted upon.
  • The Committee is chaired by the union home minister.
  • Article 343 of the Constitution declares that Hindi in Devanagari script shall be the official language of the union.
  • Parliament enacted the official languages Act in 1963, providing for the continuance of English indefinitely as official language along with Hindi for the official purposes of the Union and for transaction of business in Parliament.
  • The committee is not mandated to recommend the medium of instruction in universities and professional institutions. Further, since Parliament has declared by law that English shall continue along with Hindi, a statutory committee constituted under that very Act has no mandate to recommend the discontinuation of English.