EDEN IAS

ETHICS CONCEPT SERIES by TIRTHANKAR ROYCHOWDHARY SIR | ETHICS CONCEPT SERIES – ARTICLE- VI

<p align=”center” style=”text-align:center; margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:20.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>PROBITY in GOVERNANCE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p>

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<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”background:#0070c0″><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:white”>Meaning of &nbsp;Probity</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>Probity means integrity, uprightness and honesty</span></span></span></b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>. For public servants <b>probity is not the mere avoidance of corruption but enforcement of impartiality, accountability, objectivity and transparency</b>. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>Probity in governance is an essential and vital requirement for an efficient and effective system of governance and for socio-economic development</span></span></span></b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>. An important requisite for ensuring probity in governance is <b>absence of corruption</b>. The other requirements are <b>effective laws, rules and regulations governing every aspect of public life and, more important, an effective and fair implementation of those laws</b>. Indeed, a proper, fair and effective enforcement of law is a facet of probity.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”background:#0070c0″><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:white”>Nolan Principles</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>In <b>1994</b>, <b>the UK government established a Committee on Standards in Public Life</b>. The committee was chaired by <b>Lord Nolan</b>, and was tasked with making recommendations to improve standards of behaviour in public life. The report of the committee established the seven principles of public life, also known as the &ldquo;<b>Nolan principles</b>&rdquo;. These principles encourage probity in governance. </span></span></span><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>The seven principles are:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

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<li><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”tab-stops:list 36.0pt”><span style=”vertical-align:baseline”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>Selflessness</span></span></span></b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>&nbsp;&ndash; Holders of public office should act solely in terms of the public interest. They should not do so in order to gain financial or other benefits for themselves, their family or their friends.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”tab-stops:list 36.0pt”><span style=”vertical-align:baseline”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>Integrity</span></span></span></b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>&nbsp;&ndash; Holders of public office should not place themselves under any financial or other obligation to outside individuals or organisations that might seek to influence them in the performance of their official duties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”tab-stops:list 36.0pt”><span style=”vertical-align:baseline”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>Objectivity</span></span></span></b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>&nbsp;&ndash; In carrying out public business, including making public appointments, awarding contracts, or recommending individuals for rewards and benefits, holders of public office should make choices on merit.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”tab-stops:list 36.0pt”><span style=”vertical-align:baseline”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>Accountability</span></span></span></b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>&nbsp;&ndash; Holders of public office are accountable for their decisions and actions to the public and must submit themselves to whatever scrutiny is appropriate to their office.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”tab-stops:list 36.0pt”><span style=”vertical-align:baseline”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>Openness</span></span></span></b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>&nbsp;&ndash; Holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and actions they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the wider public interest clearly demands.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”tab-stops:list 36.0pt”><span style=”vertical-align:baseline”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>Honesty</span></span></span></b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>&nbsp;&ndash; Holders of public office have a duty to declare any private interests relating to their public duties and to take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that protects the public interest.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:normal”><span style=”tab-stops:list 36.0pt”><span style=”vertical-align:baseline”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>Leadership</span></span></span></b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:black”>&nbsp;&ndash; Holders of public office should promote and support these principles by leadership and example.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
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<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>The <b>Seven Principles of Public Life</b> (also known as the <b>Nolan Principles</b>) apply to anyone who works as a public office-holder. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>This includes all those who are elected or appointed to public office, nationally and locally, and all people appointed to work in the Civil Service, local government, the police, courts and probation services, non-departmental public bodies (NDPBs), and in the health, education, social and care services. All public office-holders are both servants of the public and stewards of public resources. The principles also apply to all those in other sectors delivering public services.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”background:#0070c0″><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:white”>Philosophical basis of Probity in Governance</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>Probity is an indispensible component of any people-centric government. Indian scriptures and texts like <b>Ramayana, Bhagavad Gita, Buddha Charita, Arthashastra, Panchatantra, Hitopadesh</b> etc. uphold the principles of probity. Chinese philosophers like <b>Loa Tse, Confucius and Mencius</b> have celebrated the concept of probity</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>Aristotle holds that virtues such as justice, charity and generosity are dispositions to act in ways that benefit the possessor of these virtues and the society of which he is a part</span></span></span></b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>For <b>Immanuel Kant duty is central to morality</b>. Commitment to justice and probity become inseparable from the performance of duty. <b>Utilitarian viewpoint asserts that the highest happiness is the greatest happiness of the greatest number and it cannot be obtained without probity</b>. Scholars and leaders like <b>John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Mahatma Gandhi, Swami Vivekananda, Nelson Mandela, Edmund Burke</b> etc are also champions of probity. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style=”margin-bottom:13px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”background:#0070c0″><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><b><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:14.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”><span style=”color:white”>Utility of &nbsp;Probity in Governance</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p>

<ul style=”list-style-type:square”>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>To ensure accountability in governance</span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>To maintain integrity in public services</span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>To ensure compliance with processes</span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>To preserve public confidence in Government institutions and processes</span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
<li style=”margin-bottom:13px; margin-left:8px”><span style=”font-size:11pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:Calibri,sans-serif”><span lang=”EN-US” style=”font-size:12.0pt”><span style=”line-height:115%”><span style=”font-family:&quot;Cambria&quot;,serif”>To avoid misconduct, fraud, mismanagement or corruption</span></span></span></span></span></span></li>
</ul>