SYLLABUS SECTION: GS III (Economy)
WHY IN THE NEWS?
According to the latest data over 94 percent of 27.69 crores, informal sector workers registered on the e-Shram portal have a monthly income of Rs 10,000. or below and over 74 percent of the enrolled workforce belongs to SC, ST, and other backward classes (OBC),
It is aimed at building an comprehensive National Database of Unorganize Workers (NDUW) in the country.
- It seeks to register an estimating 398-400 million unorganize workers and to issue an E-Shram card.
- The aim of the portal is to boost the last-mile delivery of welfare schemes.
- For over 38 crore unorganize workers in the country.
- It was launch on August 26, 2021.
The scenario of Informal Sector Workers in India
1) Social Category Analysis:
- Over 94 percent of 27.69 crores, informal sector workers registered on the e-Shram portal have a monthly income of Rs 10,000 or below and over 74 percent of the enrolled workforce belongs to scheduled castes(SC), scheduled tribes (SC) and other backward classes (OBC),
- The proportion of the General Category workers is 25.56%
- The data showed that 94.11 percent of the registered informal workers have a monthly income of Rs 10,000 or below, while 4.36 percent have a monthly income between Rs 10,001 and Rs 15,000.
2) Age-wise analysis
- 72% of the register workers on the portal are age from 18 years to 40 years, while 22.12% are age from 40 years to 50 years.
- The proportion of the register workers age above 50 years is 13.23%while 2.93% of workers are age between 16 and 18 years.
3) Gender analysis shows that 52.81 percent of register workers are female and 47.19 percent are male.
4) Top-5 states in terms of registrations are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha.
5) Occupation-wise, agriculture is at the top with 52.11 percent of enrolments done by those related to the farm sector were following by domestic and household workers at 9.93 percent and constructions workers at 9.13 percent.
Challenges related to Informal Sector Workers
- Long working hours, low pay & difficult working conditions.
- Low job security, high turnover, and low job satisfaction.
- Inadequate social security regulation.
- Difficulty in exercising rights.
- Lack of Control and Surveillance: The informal sector remains unmonitored by the government.
- Low-quality Products: Although the informal sector employs more than 75% of the Indian population, the value-addition per employee is very low. This means that a major portion of our human resources is under-utilized.
Read more: UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS
Source: Business Standard