SYLLABUS SECTION: GS II (SOCIAL ISSUES)
WHY IN THE NEWS?
The Vice President expressed concern over low female participation in the formal labour force in India,
and called for addressing this problem on a war footing by all the stakeholders.
HURDLES IN FEMALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION
- Child care-related issues, a critical barrier to women’s labour force participation.
- The biggest dividends will come from focusing on women in the informal sector.
- In India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan, 76, 89, 71 and 66% of working women,
- Respectively, are employed on own account or as family workers (ILO).
- Digital divide: In India in 2019, internet users were 67% male and 33% female, and this gap is even bigger in rural areas.
- This divide can become a barrier for women to access critical education, health and financial services, or to achieve success in activities or sectors that are becoming more digitised.
- Use the income tax system to push female labour force participation. Women have a higher elasticity of labour supply than men (their labour supply is more responsive to their take-home wages) — lower income taxes for women can incentivise their participation.
- Technological Disruption:Women hold most of the administrative and data-processing roles that artificial intelligence and other technologies threaten to usurp.
- The participation of women in the formal labour force is essential to significantly increase their contribution to the GDP as also for inclusive growth.
- Educational institutions should introduce skill-based courses for increasing the employability of women.
- Educational institutions should form linkages with the industries and tailor the courses in accordance with their requirements.
- It is necessary to change established gender narratives and ensure upward mobility of women in various fields.
- National Education Policy-2020 has set the goal to achieve 100 per cent enrolment of girls in schools by 2035 and 50 per cent in higher education institutions.
Read more: UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS